Melosaurus is an extinct genus of temnospondyli amphibian. Fossils of it have been found in Russia. Fossil remains of Melosaurus uralensis were discovered at Belebei in Russia. Its fossils dated of the Asselian-Olenekian stages (299–245 million years ago). Fossils of Melosaurus sp. were also unearthed at the site. Fossils of Melosaurus uralensis were found at the Sterlitamak site in Bashkortostan in Russia. The span of the strata is listed as Wordian (268–265.8 million years ago).
Melosaurus was 2.5–3 m (8.2–9.8 ft) in length. It lived around ponds, lakes, rivers, and marshes. The diet of Melosaurus consisted of fish and smaller tetrapods. Melosaurus was a powerful predator. It very likely preyed upon Discosauriscus (an aquatic batrachosaur).