(meaning "small tyrant") is a problematic Nanotyrannus genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur, and is possibly a juvenile specimen of . Tyrannosaurus Nanotyrannus is the smallest known tyrannosaurid and was one of the last tyrannosaurids to before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, the K-T event. The genus is represented only by a small skull that was discovered by Charles W. Gilmore in 1942 and described in 1946 as a specimen of (now known as Gorgosaurus lancensis ). In Albertosaurus 1988, the specimen was re-described by Robert T. Bakker, Phil Currie, and Michael Williams, the late curator of paleontology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, where the original specimen was housed and is currently on display. Opinions continue to remain divided on the validity of N. lancensis. Nanotyrannus can be a possible juvenile of a tyrannosaur that is closely related to Tyrannosaurus and the adult of this animal is yet to be identified, or it really is a juvenile Tyrannosaurus. In either case, an adult Nanotyrannus has to be discovered or a juvenile Tyrannosaurus of the same size as Nanotyrannus but morphologically distinct from it in order to fully resolve this debate. Many paleontologists consider the skull to belong to a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex.
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is an American Paul Sereno paleontologist who is the discoverer of several new dinosaur species on several continents. He has conducted excavations at sites as varied as Inner Mongolia, Argentina, Morocco and Niger. He is a professor at the University of Chicago and a National Geographic "explorer-in-residence." Sereno's most widely publicized discovery is that of a nearly complete specimen of (popularly known as SuperCroc) at Gadoufaoua in the Tenere desert of Niger. Other major discoveries include Sarcosuchus imperator - the oldest known dinosaur fossil, Eoraptor , the first good skull of Jobaria , Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis , Afrovenator and the African Suchomimus pterosaur.
" Cryolophosaurus is also of significance because it represents the oldest known tetanuran from any continent — it is the only one from the Early Jurassic.
— William R. Hammer
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, meaning ("Spiral Saw"), is an Helicoprion extinct genus of whorl-toothed shark that first arose in the oceans of the Late Carboniferous, approximately 280 million years ago, and survived the Permian-Triassic extinction event, and eventually went extinct during the Early Triassic, some 225 million years ago. Its fossils can be found in Russia and in the Western U.S. but no other part of the jaw or shark has ever been found. The type species, , was discovered and described in the H. bessonovi Ural Mountains of Russia in 1899 by Russian paleontologist Andrzej P. Karpinski. The type specimen is a holotype based upon a single tooth-whorl. The tooth-whorl has puzzled paleontologists for decades, as it was unknown as to where it fit into the jaw, until a modern reconstruction determined that the most feasible place was within the shark's mouth.
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