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List of fossil birds

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For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Late Quaternary prehistoric birds.
Archaeopteryx lithographica - cast of Humboldt Museum specimen

A replica of the Berlin specimen of Archaeopteryx, most famous of prehistoric birds.

Birds are generally believed to have evolved from certain feathered theropod dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs, except of course that some of the former survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event while the latter did not. For the purposes of this article, a 'bird' is considered to be any member of the clade Aves sensu lato.[1] Some dinosaur groups which may or may not be true birds are listed below under 'Proto-birds'.

This page contains a listing of prehistoric bird taxa only known from completely fossilized specimens. These extinctions took place before the Late Quaternary and thus took place in the absence of significant human interference. While the earliest hominids had been eating birds and especially their eggs, human population and technology was simply insufficient to seriously affect healthy bird populations until the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Rather, reasons for the extinctions listed here are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate change due to orbital shifts, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa - it is notable that an extremely large number of seabirds have gone extinct during the mid-Tertiary; this seems at least partly due to competition by the contemporary radiation of marine mammals.

The relationships of these taxa are often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and due to the complete fossilization precluding analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing.


Taxonomic list of fossil prehistoric birdsEdit

Higher-level taxa are presented in likely or suspected phylogenetic order. Genus-level taxa and lower are sorted chronologically, in ascending order (i.e., older taxa first).

The higher-level groups of non-Neornithes are arranged based on the phylogeny proposed by Luis Chiappe,[2] updated and expanded to incorporate recent research.[3] The categories are inclusive in ascending order.

Please be aware that taxonomic assignments, especially in the pygostylian to early neornithine genera, are still very provisional and subject to quite frequent change.

"Proto-birds" (extinct)Edit

This category contains very early fossils that some consider the earliest evidence of birds and others which are generally agreed to be theropods but the placement of which in regard to birds is controversial. Most scientists consider them - especially the mysterious Alvarezsauridae - closely related to birds, and some find them avian enough to include in the birds outright. In any case, these forms demonstrate that feathered wings and other "avian" features were not limited to true birds, but evolved independently in several related lineages of theropods.

See also Archaeopterygiformes and Deinonychosauria, and Origin of birds.

Scansoriopteryx

Reconstruction of the juvenile named Epidendrosaurus ninchengensis.
The Scansoriopterygidae may well be the closest known relatives of Archaeopteryx, and perhaps of all birds.

Basal Aves (extinct)Edit

Amnh sapeornis1

Model of Sapeornis chaoyangensis, a short-legged Early Cretaceous bird the size of a large grouse which probably fed on fruit and nuts.

The most primitive birds, usually still possessing a long bony tail with generally unfused vertebrae.

OmnivoropterygiformesEdit

Basal Pygostylia (extinct)Edit

Confuciusornis

Reconstruction of two Confuciusornis in flight, showing their strange wing shape.

The earliest birds with a modern pygostyle: a reduction and fusion of the tail vertebrae; possibly a paraphyletic group. Two types of pygostyle are known, a rod-shaped one found in Confuciusornithidae, Enantiornithes and some non-avian theropods such as Nomingia, and a plowshare-shaped one, only known in the lineage leading to modern birds. It is not certain that the pygostyles found in birds are indeed synapomorphies.[4]

Enantiornithes (extinct)Edit

"Opposite Birds" due to the shape of their scapula/coracoid bones; an extinct Mesozoic sub-class. Together with the Ornithurae (which includes modern birds), they form the Ornithothoraces: birds adapted to flight in the modern way (though the expression of individual traits differs). For example, their shoulder blades are modified to permit raising their wings far above their backs; although as noted above, the shape of the individual shoulder bones differs markedly among ornithothoracine groups, and considering also the different pygostyles of Enantiornithes and Ornithurae, it may well be that the Ornithothoraces are not monophyletic.

Iberomesornis-model-2

Reconstruction of Iberomesornis romerali, a tiny primitive enantiornithine.
It was no bigger than a modern-day finch.

EnantiornithiformesEdit

Basal Ornithurae[5] (extinct)Edit

Also called "basal Ornithuromorpha".[6] Essentially modern birds, except many still possess a few primitive features such as teeth or wing claws. These have the plowshare-shaped pygostyle and proper tail as seen in most living birds. The taxonomy of this group is confusing; the name "Ornithurae" was first proposed by Ernst Haeckel in 1866 and has been revised in meaning several times since. On the other hand, the Ornithuromorpha may be a junior synonym of Ornithothoraces (or even Pygostylia).[1]

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Gansus (Early Cretaceous) - basal
    • Archaeorhynchus (Early Cretaceous) - basal?
    • Apsaravis (Late Cretaceous) - ambiortid?
    • Limenavis (Late Cretaceous) - neornithine (paleognath)?
    • "cf. Parahesperornis" (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - hesperornithiform?
    • Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. RBCM.EH2005.003.0001 (Northumberland Late Cretaceous of Hornby Island, Canada)
    • Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. TMP 98.68.145 (Dinosur Park Late Cretaceous of Iddesleigh, Canada) - hesperornithiform?
    • Carinatae gen. et sp. indet. NHMM/RD 271 (Maastricht Late Cretaceous, CBR-Romontbos Quarry, Belgium) - ichthyornithine?
  • Ambiortidae

YanornithiformesEdit

Hesperornithes (extinct)Edit

Hesperornis BW

Hesperornis

Large, toothed, loon-like diving birds.

Ichthyornithes (extinct)Edit

Ichthyornis BW

Ichthyornis

Toothed birds similar to modern gulls.

NeornithesEdit

The subclass that contains all modern birds.

Unresolved and basal forms
These modern birds are known from remains that cannot be placed in relation to any one modern group and are neither autapomorphic enough to assign them to own orders. Especially the Late Cretaceous/early Paleogene taxa are probably basal to several modern orders.

  • Ceramornis (Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
  • "Cimolopteryx" (Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
  • Palintropus (Late Cretaceous) - quercymegapodiid or charadriform
  • "Presbyornithidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Udan Sayr, Mongolia) - anseriform (presbyornithid)?
  • Teviornis (Late Cretaceous) - presbyornithid?
  • Torotix (Late Cretaceous) - pelecaniform, charadriiform, procellariiform or phoenicopteriform
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis "Kurochkin 1995" (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of S Mongolia) - phalacrocoracid?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis AMNH FR 25272 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Converse County, USA) - phalacrocoracid?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis PVPH 237 (Portezuelo Late Cretaceous of Sierra de Portezuelo, Argentina) - galliform?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis UCMP 117598 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA) - anseriform?
  • Lonchodytes (Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene) - gaviiform/pelecaniform? procellariiform?
  • "Lonchodytes" pterygius (Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
  • Novacaesareala (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - related to Torotix?
  • "Palaeotringa" vetus (Lance Late Cretaceous of Wyoming - Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene of New Jersey, USA) - gruiform? anseriform (presbyornithid)?
  • Volgavis (Early Palaeocene of Volgograd, Russia) - charadriiform? phalacrocoraciform?
  • Eopuffinus (Late Paleocene of Zhylga, Kazakhstan) - procellariiform (procellariid)?
  • Tshulia (Late Paleocene of Zhylga, Kazakhstan)
  • Eupterornis (Paleocene of Cernay, France) - charadriiform (larid?)? gaviiform?
  • Gradiornis (Paleocene of Walbeck, Germany) - cariamid?
  • "Messelornis" russelli (Paleocene of Cernay, France) - messelornithid?
  • Walbeckornis (Paleocene of Walbeck, Germany) - charadriiform? messelornithid?
  • Argilliornis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - procellariiform (pelagornithid?)
  • Argillipes (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
  • Coturnipes (Early Eocene of England, and Virginia, USA?) - galliform, falconiform?
  • Fluviatitavis (Early Eocene of Silveirinha, Portugal) - charadriiform?
  • Neanis (Early Eocene) - primobucconid, piciform?
  • Neptuniavis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - pelagornithid or procellariid
  • Onychopteryx (Early Eocene of Argentina) - falconid? A nomen dubium
  • Paleophasianus (Willwood Early Eocene of Bighorn County, USA) - galliform (tetraonine or cracid) or gruiform (aramid)?
  • Paracathartes (Early Eocene of WC USA) - lithornithiform?
  • Parvigyps (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - falconiform?
  • Pediorallus (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - lithornithiform or galliform?
  • Percolinus (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
  • "Precursor" (Early Eocene) - several species? psittaciform (pseudasturid or psittacid) + charadriiform (glareolid)?
  • Procuculus (Early Eocene of Bognor Regis, England) - parvicuculid? primobucconid? close to Primapus?
  • Pulchrapollia (Early Eocene) - includes "Primobucco" olsoni - psittaciform (pseudasturid or psittacid)?
  • Vastanavis (Early Eocene of Vastan, India) - gruiform (otidid)?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis USNM 496384 (Nanjemoy Early Eocene of Virginia, USA) - parvicuculid? aegithalornithid?
  • †"Green River Palaeognath" USNM 336103 (Green River Early/middle Eocene)
  • Palaeopsittacus (Early - middle Eocene of NW Europe) - caprimulgiform (podargid?) or quercypsittid?
  • Amitabha (Bridger middle Eocene of Forbidden City, USA) - galliform (phasianid) or gruiform (rallid?)?
  • Eocathartes (middle Eocene of Germany) - cathartid?
  • Eociconia (middle Eocene of China) - ciconiiform (ciconiid)?
  • Geiseloceros (middle Eocene of Germany) - coraciiform?
  • Hassiavis (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - archaeotrogonid, piciform?
  • Protocypselomorphus (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - caprimulgiform, apodiform or ancestral to both
  • Pumiliornis (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Eobalearica (Ferghana Late? Eocene of Ferghana, Uzbekistan) - gruiform (gruid)?
  • Ludiortyx (Late Eocene) - rallid, quercymegapodid? Includes "Tringa" hoffmanni, "Palaeortyx" blanchardi, "P." hoffmanni
  • Minggangia (Late Eocene of China) - rallid, threskiornithid?
  • Petropluvialis (Late Eocene of England) - may be same as Palaeopapia; anseriform?
  • "Phasianus" alfhildae (Washakie B Late Eocene of Haystack Butte, USA) - gruiform, ciconiiform, phoenicopteriform?
  • Talantatos (Late Eocene of Paris Bain, France) - gruiform (cariamid, idiornithid?)? Might include Elaphrocnemus and Filholornis
  • Telecrex (Irdin Manha Late Eocene of Chimney Butte, Mongolia) - meleagrid or gruiform (rallid?)
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis AMNH FR 2941 (Irdin Manha Late Eocene of Chimney Butte, China) - falconiform (accipitrid)? gruiform (Eogrus)?
  • "Falco" falconellus (or falconella; Eocene of Wyoming, USA) - falconiform (falconid)?
  • "Colymboides" anglicus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Hordwell, England) - gaviiform? previously included in Palaeopapia eous
  • Filholornis (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of France) - musophagid, cracid, carimid, idiornithid? Possibly belongs in Talantatos
  • Geranopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene - Early Oligocene of England) - gruiform (gruid?) or anseriform (anseranatid?)?
  • Elaphrocnemus (Quercy Phosphorites Late Eocene ?-middle Oligocene of Quercy, France) - idiornithid? Possibly belongs in Talantatos
  • Agnopterus (Late Eocene - Late Oligocene of Europe) - phoenicopteriform or anseriform, includes "Cygnopterus" lambrechti
  • Plesiocathartes (Late Eocene -? Early Miocene of SW Europe) - cathartid, leptosomid?
  • Botauroides (Eocene of Wyoming, USA)- coliiform?
  • Aminornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Ciconiopsis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina) - ciconiid?
  • Climacarthrus (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - accipitrid? A nomen dubium
  • Cruschedula (Deseado Early Oligocene of Golfo San Jorge, Argentina) - accipitrid? A nomen dubium
  • Dolicopterus (Early Oligocene of Ronzon, France) - charadriiform (charadriid)? Not Dolichopterus as sometimes claimed
  • Loncornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Loxornis - anatid? (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina)
  • Manu (Early Oligocene) - procellariiform (diomedeid)?
  • Palaeocrex (Early Oligocene of Trigonias Quarry, USA) - rallid?
  • Palaeopapia (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - anseriform?
  • Paracygnopterus (Early Oligocene of Belgium and England) - anatid?
  • "Pararallus" hassenkampi (Sieblos Dysodil Early Oligocene of Sieblos, Germany)
  • Riacama (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • Smiliornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • Teracus (Early Oligocene of France)
  • Teleornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - anatid?
  • Pseudolarus (Deseado Early Oligocene - Miocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - formerly "Ptenornis" and included in Headonornis; anseriform?
  • "Anas" creccoides (Early-mid Oligocene of Belgium) - anseriform?
  • "Charadrius" sheppardianus (Florissant middle Oligocene of Florissant, USA) - charadriiform (charadriid?)
  • Limicorallus (Indricotherium middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan) - anatid?
  • Megagallinula (Indricotherium middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan)
  • "Palaeorallus" alienus (middle Oligocene of Tatal-Gol, Mongolia) - galliform?
  • "Vanellus" selysii (middle Oligocene of Rupelmonde, Belgium) - charadriiform (charadriid)?
  • Anserpica (Late Oligocene of France) - gruiform (gruid?) or anseriform (anseranatid?)?
  • Gnotornis (Brule Late Oligocene of Shannon County, USA) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Tiliornis (Late? Oligocene of Argentina) - phoenicopteriform? A nomen dubium
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis QM F40203 (Late Oligocene of Riversleigh, Australia) - gruiform (rallid)?
  • Gaviella (Oligocene? of Wyoming, USA) - gaviiform? plotopterid?
  • "Anas" skalicensis (Early Miocene of "Skalitz", Czechia) - anseriform?
  • Chenornis (Early Miocene) - Anseriformes (Anatidae) or Pelecaniformes (Phalacrocoracidae)?
  • "Propelargus" olseni (Hawthorne Early Miocene of Tallahassee, USA) - ciconiiform?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis MNHN SA 1259-1263 (Early/Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - passeriform?
  • Anisolornis (Santa Cruz Middle Miocene of Karaihen, Argentina) - gruiform, galliform, tinamiform?
  • "Ardea" perplexa (Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - ardeid? strigiform?
  • "Cygnus herrenthalsi" (Middle Miocene of Belgium)
  • "Anas" risgoviensis (Late Miocene of Bavaria, Germany) - anseriform?
  • "Ardea" aureliensis (Late Miocene of France) - ardeid?
  • Eoneornis (Miocene of Argentina)- anatid? A nomen dubium
  • Eutelornis (Miocene of Argentina) - anatid?
  • Protibis (Miocene of Argentina) - ciconiiform (threskiornithid)?
  • "Limnatornis" paludicola (Miocene of France) - coliid? phoeniculid?
  • "Picus" gaudryi (Miocene of France) - piciform?
  • "Ardea" lignitum (Late Pliocene of Germany) - ardeid? strigid (genus Bubo)?
  • "Gavia" portisi (Late Pliocene of Orciano Pisano, Italy) - gaviiform? A nomen dubium
  • Bathoceleus (Pliocene of New Providence, Bahamas) - picid?
  • "Homalopus" - piciform? Preoccupied by a subgenus of Cryptocephalus leaf beetles described in 1835.
  • Juncitarsus - phoenicopteriform?
  • Kashinia - phoenicopteriform?
  • "Liptornis" - pelecaniform (pelecanid)? A nomen dubium
  • Pseudocrypturus - lithornithiform?
  • Archaeotrogonidae - basal Cypselomorphae?
    • Archaeotrogonidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Eocene)
    • Archaeotrogon (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
  • Cladornithidae - pelecaniform?
    • Cladornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
  • Eleutherornithidae
  • Eocypselidae - apodiform (hemiprocnid?)? caprimulgiform? basal Cypselomorphae?
    • Eocypselus (Late Paleocene ?- Early Eocene of NC Europe)
  • Eremopezidae - pelecaniform? ratite?
  • Foratidae - cuculiform?
    • Foro (Early Eocene)
  • Fluvioviridavidae
  • Gracilitarsidae - close to Sylphornithidae?
  • Halcyornithidae - psittaciform (pseudasturid?), coraciiform?
  • Laornithidae - charadriiform? gruiform?
  • Messelasturidae - accipitrid? basal to Strigiformes?
    • Tynskya (Early Eocene of N America and England)
    • Messelastur (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Palaeospizidae - passeriform? coraciiform?
    • Palaeospiza (Late Eocene of Florissant Fossil Beds, USA)
  • Parvicuculidae - cypselomorph, cuculiform, primobucconid?
  • Remiornithidae (Paleocene of France) - palaeognath?
  • Sylphornithidae - cuculiform? coraciiform? close to Gracilitarsidae?
  • Tytthostonygidae - procellariiform, pelecaniform?
  • Zygodactylidae - near passerine, includes Primoscenidae
  • "Graculavidae" - a paraphyletic form taxon, the "transitional shorebirds"
    • Graculavus (Late Cretaceous -? Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Palaeotringa (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Telmatornis (Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform? gruiform? podicipediform?
    • Zhylgaia (Early Paleocene) - presbyornithid?
    • Scaniornis (Early/Middle Paleocene) - phoenicopteriform?
    • Dakotornis (Paleocene of North Dakota, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Graculavidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Gloucester County, USA)

StruthioniformesEdit

Ostrich and related ratites.

Lithornithiformes (extinct)Edit

  • Lithornithidae - lithornithids
    • Promusophaga (Early Eocene)
    • Lithornis (Paleocene - Early Eocene)

TinamiformesEdit

  • Tinamidae - Tinamous
    • Querandiornis (Ensenada Early/Middle Pleistocene of Argentina)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tinamidae gen. et sp. indet. MACN-SC Fleagle Collection (Early - Middle Miocene of S Argentina) - at least 2 species
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Eudromia sp. (Late Miocene of La Pampa Province, Argentina)
      • Eudromia olsoni (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
      • Nothura parvula (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) - formerly Cayeornis
      • Eudromia intermedia (Pliocene of Argentina) - formerly Tinamisornis
      • Nothura paludosa (Pleistocene of Argentina)

AnseriformesEdit

Dromornis BW

Dromornis

Genyornis BW

Genyornis

The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Vegavis (Late Cretaceous) - closer to Presbyornithidae and Anatidae than to Anseranatidae
    • Anatalavis (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene - Early Eocene) - anseranatid or basal. Includes "Telmatornis" rex.
    • Romainvillia (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Anseranatidae or Anatidae
    • Proherodius (Early Eocene) - presbyornithid?
    • Paranyroca (Early Miocene) - Anatidae or own family?
  • Anhimidae - Screamers
    • Chaunoides
  • Dromornithidae - The Australian mihirungs or "demon ducks". The youngest genus (Genyornis) was encountered by humans.
  • Anseranatidae - magpie-geese
    • Anseranatidae gen. et sp. nov (Late Oligocene)
  • Presbyornithidae
    • Presbyornis (Paleocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Headonornis - only BMNH PAL 30325 belongs to this bird, may belong to Presbyornis.
    • Telmabates
  • Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
    • Eonessa (Eocene)
    • Cygnavus (Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Cygnopterus (middle Oligocene - Early Miocene) - sometimes included in Cygnavus
    • Guguschia (Oligocene)
    • Mionetta (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene) - includes "Anas" blanchardi, "A." consobrina, "A." natator
    • Dunstanetta (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Manuherikia (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Matanas (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Miotadorna (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Megalodytes (Middle Miocene)
    • Sinanas (Middle Miocene)
    • Anserobranta (Late Miocene) - includes "Anas" robusta, validity doubtful
    • Dendrochen (Late Miocene) - includes "Anas" integra
    • Presbychen (Late Miocene)
    • Afrocygnus (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene)
    • Balcanas (Early Pliocene) - may belong in 'Tadorna
    • Wasonaka (Middle Pliocene)
    • Paracygnus (Late Pliocene)
    • Anabernicula (Late Pliocene? - Late Pleistocene)
    • Eremochen (Pliocene)
    • Tirarinetta (Pliocene)
    • Brantadorna (Middle Pleistocene)
    • Nannonetta (Late Pleistocene of Peru)
    • Aldabranas (Late Pleistocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Anas" luederitzensis (Kalahari Early Miocene of Lüderitzbucht, Namibia)
      • "Oxura" doksana (Early Miocene)
      • Anatidae gen. et sp. indet. MNZ S42797 (Early/Middle Miocene)
      • "Aythya" chauvirae (Middle Miocene) - 2 species
      • "cf. Megalodytes" (Middle Miocene)
      • Anatidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene) - several species
      • "Anas" meyerii (Middle Miocene)
      • "Anas" velox (Middle - Late? Miocene) - may include "A." meyerii
      • "Anas" albae (Late Miocene of Polgárdi, Hungary) - formerly in Mergus
      • "Anas" isarensis (Late Miocene of Aumeister, Germany)
      • Anatidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • "Anas" eppelsheimensis (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany)
      • "Chenopis" nanus (Pleistocene) - at least 2 taxa, may be living species
    • Extant and recently extinct genera present in the fossil record
      • Somateria (middle Oligocene? - Recent)
      • Bucephala (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Clangula (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Cygnus (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Histrionicus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - includes Ocyplonessa
      • Mergus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Anas (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Anser (Late Miocene - Recent) - includes Heterochen
      • Aythya (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Branta (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Oxyura (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Chendytes (Early Pleistocene - Holocene)
      • Lophodytes (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Neochen (Late Pleistocene - Recent)

GalliformesEdit

The group that includes domestic chickens and their relatives.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Austinornis (Late Cretaceous) - tentatively placed here; formerly Graculavus/Ichthyornis/Pedioecetes lentus
    • Procrax (middle Eocene? - Early Oligocene) - cracid? gallinuloidid?
    • Palaeortyx (middle Eocene -? Early Pliocene) - phasianid or odontophorid
    • Palaeonossax (Late Oligocene) - cracid?
    • Taoperdix (Late Oligocene) - gallinuloidid? Includes "Tetrao" pessieti
    • Archaealectrornis (Oligocene) - phasianid?
    • †Galliformes gen. et sp. indet. MCZ 342506 (Oligocene) - formerly in Gallinuloides; phasianid?
    • Archaeophasianus (Oligocene? - Late Miocene) - tetraonid or phasianid
    • Palaealectoris (Early Miocene) - tetraonid?
    • Linquornis (middle Miocene)
    • Palaeoalectoris (middle Miocene)
    • Shandongornis (middle Miocene)
    • "Cyrtonyx" tedfordi (Late Miocene)
  • Gallinuloididae
    • Gallinuloides (Early/middle Eocene)
    • Paraortygoides (London Clay Early Eocene of Walton-on-the-Naze, England - middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Paraortygidae
    • Pirortyx
    • Paraortyx
  • Quercymegapodiidae
    • Quercymegapodius (middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Taubacrex (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Brazil)
    • Ameripodius (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene of Brazil and France)
  • Megapodidae - Megapodes
    • Ngawupodius
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Leipoa gallinacea - formerly Chosornis, Palaeopelargus, Progura
  • Cracidae - Guans and Curassows
    • Boreortalis (Early Miocene) - may be same as Ortalis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Phasianidae - Pheasants, quails, partridges, grouse and turkeys
    • Schaubortyx (middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Rhegminornis (Early Miocene of Bell, USA)
    • Proagriocharis (Kimball Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lime Creek, USA)
    • Chauvireria (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
    • Palaeocryptonyx (Late Pliocene of SW Europe) - including "Francolinus" minor, "F." subfrancolinus
    • Miogallus
    • Miophasianus
    • Palaeoperdix
    • Pliogallus
    • Plioperdix
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Tympanuchus" stirtoni (Early Miocene of South Dakota)
      • Tetraoninae gen. et sp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary)
      • Meleagridae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Westmoreland County, USA)
      • "Tympanuchus" lulli (Pleistocene? of New Jersey)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Odontophoridae - New World Quails
    • Nanortyx (Cypress Hills Early Oligocene of North Calf Creek, Canada)
    • Miortyx (Rosebud Early Miocene of Flint Hill, USA)
    • Neortyx (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • †Odontophoridae gen. et sp. indet. KUVP 9393 (White River Early/middle Oligocene of Logan County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Cyrtonyx cooki (Late Miocene? of Upper Sheep Creek, USA)
      • Callipepla? shotwelli (Middle Pliocene of McKay Reservoir, USA) - formerly Lophortyx
      • Colinus hibbardi (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Colinus sp. (Late Pliocene of Benson, USA)
      • Colinus suilium (Early Pleistocene of SE USA)
      • Dendrortyx? sp. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico)

CharadriiformesEdit

Gulls, auks, shorebirds

  • Basal and unresolved taxa
    • †Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Cretaceous) - burhinid? basal?
    • "Morsoravis" (Late Paleocene/Early Eocene) - a nomen nudum?
    • Jiliniornis (middle Eocene) - charadriid?
    • Boutersemia (Early Oligocene) - glareolid?
    • Turnipax (Early Oligocene) - turnicid?
    • Elorius (Early Miocene)
    • "Larus" desnoyersii (Early Miocene of SE France) - larid? stercorarid?
    • "Larus" pristinus (John Day Early Miocene of Willow Creek, USA) - larid?
    • †Charadriiformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) - several species, 1 probably larid
    • †Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
    • "Totanus" teruelensis (Late Miocene of Los Mansuetos, Spain) - scolopacid? larid?
    • "Actitis" balcanica (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria) - scolopacid? charadriid?
  • Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
    • Paractitis (Early Oligocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle - Late Miocene)
      • Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Limosa (Late Eocene? - Recent)
      • Tringa (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene? - Recent) - includes Totanus
      • Gallinago (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Scolopax (Early/Middle Pliocene? - Recent)
      • Phalaropus (Middle Pliocene - Recent)
      • Actitis (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Numenius (Late Pleistocene - Recent) - includes Palnumenius
  • Jacanidae - Jacanas
    • Nupharanassa (Early Oligocene)
    • Janipes
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Jacana farrandi
  • Laridae - Gulls
    • †Laridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
    • Laricola (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene) - larid? Formerly "Larus" elegans and "L." totanoides
    • Gaviota (Middle/Late Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Larus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
  • Alcidae - Auks
    • Hydrotherikornis (Late Eocene of Oregon, USA)
    • Petralca (Early ?- Late Oligocene of Austria)
    • Miocepphus (Middle Miocene of CE USA)
    • Alcodes (Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Praemancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Mancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pleistocene of W North America)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Stercorariidae - Skuas and jaegers
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Stercorarius sp. (Middle Miocene)
      • Stercorarius shufeldti (Fossil Lake Middle Pleistocene of WC USA)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
  • Glareolidae - Pratincoles
    • Paractiornis (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
    • Mioglareola (Early Miocene of Czechia) - formerly "Larus" dolnicensis
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Glareola neogena
  • Burhinidae - Thick-knees
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Burhinus lucorum (Early Miocene)
      • Burhinus aquilonaris
      • Burhinus sp. (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Burhinus sp. (Late Pleistocene of Las Higueruelas, Spain)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
  • Charadriidae - Plovers
    • Limicolavis (John Day Early Miocene of Malheur County, USA)
    • Viator (Late Pleistocene of Talara, Peru) - may be synonym of Vanellus (or Belanopteryx if valid)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Vanellus (Middle/Late Pleistocene - Recent) - includes Belanopteryx
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Oreopholus orcesi
  • Recurvirostridae - Avocets
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Recurvirostra sanctaeneboulae

Gastornithiformes (extinct)Edit

The diatrymas, a group of huge flightless Paleogene birds of unclear affinities. Traditionally placed within the Gruiformes, they are usually considered a distinct order nowadays and appear closer to the Anseriformes.

  • Gastornithidae
    • Gastornis (Late Paleocene - middle Eocene) - includes Diatryma
    • Gasthornithidae gen. et sp. indet. (Paleocene) - possibly Gastornis
    • Gasthornithidae gen. et sp. indet. YPM PU 13258 (Early Eocene) - possibly juvenile Gastornis giganteus
    • "Diatryma" cotei (middle-Late Eocene)
    • Zhongyuanus

GruiformesEdit

The group that includes modern rails and cranes. Probably paraphyletic.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Propelargus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - cariamid or idiornithid
    • Rupelrallus (Early Oligocene) - rallid? parvigruid?
    • Badistornis (middle Oligocene) - aramid?
    • Probalearica (Late Oligocene? - Middle Pliocene) - gruid? A nomen dubium?
    • †"Gruiformes" gen. et sp. indet. MNZ S42623 (Early/Middle Miocene) - Aptornithidae?
    • Aramornis (Middle Miocene) - gruid? aramid?
    • Euryonotus (Pleistocene) - rallid?
    • Occitaniavis - cariamid or idiornithid, includes Geranopsis elatus
  • Parvigruidae
    • Parvigrus (Early Oligocene of Pichovet, France)
  • Songziidae - possibly a nomen nudum
  • Rallidae - Rails
    • Eocrex (Early Eocene)
    • Palaeorallus (Early Eocene)
    • Parvirallus (Early - middle Eocene)
    • Aletornis (middle Eocene) - includes Protogrus
    • Fulicaletornis (middle Eocene)
    • Latipons (middle Eocene)
    • Ibidopsis (Late Eocene)
    • Quercyrallus (Late Eocene -? Late Oligocene)
    • Belgirallus (Early Oligocene)
    • Rallicrex (Middle/Late Oligocene)
    • Palaeoaramides (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene - Late Miocene)
    • Paraortygometra (Late Oligocene/?Early Miocene -? Middle Miocene)
    • Pararallus (Late Oligocene? - Late Miocene) - possibly belongs into Palaeoaramides
    • Miofulica (Middle Miocene)
    • Youngornis (Middle Miocene)
    • Miorallus (Middle - Late Miocene)
    • Creccoides (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et spp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) - several species
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V55013/-14; UMMP V55012/V45750/V45746 (Late Pliocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V29080 (Late Pliocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bermuda, West Atlantic)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Gallinula (Late Oligocene - Recent)
      • Rallus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - includes Epirallus
      • Porzana (Middle? Miocene - Recent)
      • Fulica (Early Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coturnicops avita (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene of Hagerman, USA)
      • Laterallus insignis (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Laterallus sp. (Late Pliocene of Macasphalt Shell Pit, USA)
  • Eogruidae
    • Eogrus (Irdin Manha Middle/Late Eocene - Tung Gur Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Mongolia)
    • Sonogrus (Ergilin Dzo Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Khor Dzan, Mongolia)
  • Ergilornithidae - may belong in Eogruidae
    • Ergilornis (Early/middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Proergilornis (Early/middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Amphipelargus
    • Urmiornis - may belong into Amphipelargus
  • Gruidae - Cranes
    • Palaeogrus (middle Eocene of Germany and Italy - Middle Miocene of France)
    • Camusia (Late Miocene of Menorca, Mediterranean)
    • Pliogrus (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Gruidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Grus conferta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Contra Costa County, USA)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Balearica (Early Miocene - Recent) - includes Basityto and Grus excelsa/Ornithocnemis excelsus
      • Grus (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Messelornithidae - Messel-birds
    • Itardiornis
    • Messelornis
  • Salmilidae
    • Salmila
  • Ameghinornithidae
    • Strigogyps - probably includes Aenigmavis and Ameghinornis
  • Geranoididae
    • Eogeranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of Foster Gulch, USA)
    • Geranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of South Elk Creek, USA)
    • Palaeophasianus (Willwood Early Eocene of Bighorn County, USA)
    • Paragrus (Early Eocene of WC USA)
    • Geranodornis (Bridger middle Eocene of Church Buttes, USA)
  • Bathornithidae
    • Eutreptornis (Uinta Late Eocene of Ouray Agency, USA)
    • Neocathartes (Late Eocene)
    • Palaeogyps (Early Oligocene of WC North America)
    • Bathornithidae gen. nov. (Early - middle Oligocene of C USA) - formerly Bathornis celeripes and B. cursor
    • Paracrax (Early/middle Oligocene of Gerry's Ranch, USA - Brule Late Oligocene of South Dakota, USA) - includes Oligocorax/Phalacrocorax mediterraneus
    • Bathornis (Early Oligocene - Early Miocene of C USA)
Paraphysornis BW

Paraphysornis

PhoenicopteriformesEdit

  • Placement unresolved
    • Phoeniconotius (Etadunna Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Lake Pitikanta, Australia)
  • Palaelodidae - Swimming-flamingos
    • Adelalopus (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Palaelodus (middle Oligocene -? Middle Pleistocene)
    • Megapaloelodus (Late Oligocene - Early Pliocene)
  • Phoenicopteridae - Flamingos
    • Elornis (Middle? Eocene - Early Oligocene) - includes Actiornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Phoenicopteridae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle? - Late Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

PodicipediformesEdit

  • Podicipedidae - Grebes
    • Miobaptus (Early Miocene)
    • Thiornis (Late Miocene -? Early Pliocene)
    • Pliolymbus (Late Pliocene - Early? Pleistocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene) - formerly included in Podiceps parvus
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP 49592, 52261, 51848, 52276, KUVP 4484 (Late Pliocene)
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

CiconiiformesEdit

The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures. Paraphyletic as listed here.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Proplegadis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - Threskiornithidae?
    • "Teratornis" olsoni - Teratornithidae?
  • Ardeidae - Herons
    • Calcardea (Paleocene)
    • Proardea (Late Eocene ?- Late Oligocene)
    • Xenerodiops (Early Oligocene)
    • Zeltornis (Early Miocene)
    • Ardeagradis
    • Proardeola - possibly same as Proardea
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Anas" basaltica (Late Oligocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Scopidae - Hammerkop
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Scopus xenopus
  • Threskiornithidae - Ibises
    • †Threskiornithidae gen. et sp. indet. NMMP-KU 1301 (Pondaung middle Eocene of Paukkaung, Myanmar) - Threskiornithinae?
    • Rhynchaeites (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - including Plumumida
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Platalea tiangangensis (Xiacaowan Middle Miocene of Sihong, China)
      • Plegadis paganus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Eudocimus, including Milnea
      • Plegadis gracilis (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Plegadis pharangites (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Theristicus wetmorei (Late Pleistocene of Peru)
      • Eudocimus leiseyi (Early Pleistocene of Florida)
      • Eudocimus peruvianus (Late Pleistocene of Peru; may be living species)
      • Eudocimus sp. (Middle Pliocene of Florida)
Teratornis BW

Teratornis

  • Teratornithidae - Teratorns
  • Cathartidae - New World vultures
    • Diatropornis (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene -? middle Oligocene)
    • Phasmagyps (Early Oligocene)
    • Brasilogyps (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Hadrogyps (Middle Miocene)
    • Pliogyps (Late Miocene - Late Pliocene)
    • Perugyps (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Dryornis (Early - Late? Pliocene) - may belong to modern genus Vultur
    • Aizenogyps (Late Pliocene)
    • Breagyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Geronogyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Wingegyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Parasarcoramphus
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of Mongolia)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Pliocene of Argentina)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Cuba)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Sarcoramphus (Middle Pliocene ?- Recent)
      • Gymnogyps (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Vultur (Pliocene - Recent) - distinctiveness disputed
  • Balaenicipitidae - Shoebills
    • Goliathia (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Egypt)
    • Paludavis (Late Miocene of Tunisia and Pakistan)
  • Ciconiidae - Storks
    • Palaeoephippiorhynchus (Early Oligocene)
    • Grallavis (Early Miocene) - may be same as Prociconia
    • Pelargosteon (Early Pleistocene)
    • Prociconia (Late Pleistocene) - may belong to modern genus Jabiru or Ciconia
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Aquilavus/Cygnus bilinicus (Early Miocene)
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • cf. Leptoptilos gen. et sp. indet. - formerly L. siwalicensis (Late Miocene? - Late Pliocene)
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pleistocene) - Ciconia or Mycteria?
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

PelecaniformesEdit

The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants. As presented here paraphyletic; the tropicbird lineage is not part of this group and relationships with Procellariiformes and Sphenisciformes require more research. Also, as the pelicans are at least as close to the Ciconiiformes as to cormorants, the latter group is being recognized as Phalacrocoraciiformes by some recent authors.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • "Sula" ronzoni (Early Oligocene of Ronzon, France) - formerly Mergus and Prophalacrocorax
  • Prophaethontidae
    • Lithoptila (Late Paleocene - Early Eocene of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco)
    • Prophaethon (Late Paleocene ?- Early Eocene)
  • Phaethontidae - Tropicbirds
    • Phaethusavis (Early Eocene of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco)
    • Heliadornis (Miocene of North America and Europe)
  • Fregatidae - Frigatebirds
  • Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
    • Masillastega (middle Eocene)
    • Eostega (Middle/Late Eocene)
    • Empheresula (Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene)
    • Microsula (Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene)
    • Sarmatosula (Middle Miocene)
    • Miosula (Late Miocene)
    • Palaeosula (?Early Pliocene)
    • Rhamphastosula (Early Pliocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Sulidae gen. et sp. indet. (Thalberg Late Oligocene of Germany)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Morus (Early Miocene - Recent)
      • Sula (Middle Pliocene - Recent)
Copepteryx BW

Copepteryx

  • Phalacrocoracidae - Cormorants and shags
    • Nectornis (Late Oligocene?/Early Miocene of C Europe - Middle Miocene of Bes-Konak, Turkey) - includes Oligocorax miocaenus
    • "Valenticarbo" (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene) - a nomen dubium
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Oligocorax" sp. (Late Oligocene of Enspel, Germany)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Phalacrocorax (Oligocene ?- Recent) - may be several genera. Includes Australocorax, Miocorax, Pliocarbo
  • Plotopteridae - Diving-"boobies"
    • Copepteryx
    • Hokkaidornis
    • Phocavis
    • Plotopterum
    • Tonsala
  • Protoplotidae
    • Protoplotus (Paleocene? - middle Eocene of Sumatra)
  • Anhingidae - Darters
    • Meganhinga (Early Miocene)
    • Macranhinga (Middle/Late Miocene -? Early Pliocene)
    • †Anhingidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle/Late Miocene)
    • Giganhinga (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
Osteodontornis BW

Osteodontornis

ProcellariiformesEdit

The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Primodroma (Early Eocene)
  • Diomedeoididae
    • Rupelornis (Early Oligocene of Belgium)
    • Diomedeoides (Early Oligocene ?-Early Miocene of C Europe and Iran) - includes Frigidafons, may be synonym of Rupelornis
  • Diomedeidae - Albatrosses
    • Murunkus (middle Eocene)
    • Plotornis (Early - Middle Miocene) - includes "Puffinus" arvernensis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Diomedeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of South Carolina)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Hydrobatidae - Storm-petrels
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Oceanodroma hubbsi (Capistrano Middle/Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
      • Oceanodroma sp.
      • Pelagodroma sp. 1
      • Pelagodroma sp. 2
  • Procellariidae - Petrels
    • Argyrodyptes (San Julián Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Chubut, Argentina)
    • Pterodromoides
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Pelecanoididae - Diving-petrels
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

GaviiformesEdit

  • Gaviidae - Loons
    • Colymboides (Late Eocene - Early Miocene) - includes Hydrornis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Gavia (Early Miocene - Recent)

SphenisciformesEdit

Waimanu BW

Waimanu

Icadyptes BW

Icadyptes

PteroclidiformesEdit

ColumbiformesEdit

  • Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
    • Gerandia (Early Miocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • †Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

PsittaciformesEdit

Unresolved and basal fossil parrots:

  • Mopsitta (Early Eocene) - psittacid?
  • Psittacopes (Early/middle Eocene)
  • Serudaptus - pseudasturid or psittacid?
  • Pseudasturidae (= Halcyornithidae?)
    • Pseudasturidae FU 125 gen. et sp. indet. (Early Eocene)
    • Pseudasturides - formerly Pseudastur
  • Quercypsittidae
  • Cacatuidae
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets and lories
    • Archaeopsittacus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene)
    • Xenopsitta (Early Miocene)
    • †Psittacidae gen. et spp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) - several species
    • Bavaripsitta (Middle Miocene)
    • †Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene) - erroneously placed in Pararallus dispar, includes "Psittacus" lartetianus
    • Extant and recently extinct genera present in the fossil record

OpisthocomiformesEdit

Hoatzins

  • Opisthocomidae
    • Hoazinoides (Late Miocene)
    • Hoatzi - may be same as Foro

CuculiformesEdit

Cuckoos, turacos and allies.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Cuculiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early Eocene)
  • Musophagidae - Turacos
    • Veflintornis (Middle Miocene) - formerly Apopempsis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Musophagidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene of WC Europe)
      • "Apopempsis" africanus (Early Miocene) - formerly Musophaga, might belong in Veflintornis
      • Musophagidae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
  • Cuculidae - Cuckoos
    • Eocuculus (Late Eocene)
    • Dynamopterus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
    • Neococcyx (Early Oligocene)
    • Cursoricoccyx (Early Miocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cuculidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)

FalconiformesEdit

Birds of prey. Possibly polyphyletic or paraphyletic.

  • Unresolved and basal forms
  • Horusornithidae
  • Pandionidae - Ospreys
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Pandion (Early Oligocene - Recent)
  • Sagittariidae - Secretary Birds
    • Pelargopappus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Amphiserpentarius/Amynoptilon/Pelargopsis
  • Accipitridae - Hawks, eagles and Old World vultures
    • Milvoides (Late Eocene)
    • Aquilavus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Palaeocircus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
    • Palaeastur (Early Miocene)
    • Pengana (Early Miocene)
    • Promilio (Early Miocene)
    • Proictinia (Early - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Neophrontops (Early/middle Miocene - Late Pleistocene) - formerly in Neophron
    • Mioaegypius (middle Miocene)
    • Apatosagittarius (Late Miocene)
    • Palaeoborus (Miocene)
    • Qiluornis (Miocene)
    • Thegornis (Miocene)
    • Garganoaetus (Early Pliocene)
    • Amplibuteo (Late Pliocene of Peru - Late Pleistocene) - may belong to extant genus Harpyhaliaetus (or Buteogallus)
    • Neogyps
    • Palaeohierax - includes "Aquila" gervaisii
    • Wetmoregyps - formerly Morphnus daggetti
    • Placement unresolved
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. AMNH FR 7434 (Early Eocene)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pliocene) - Parabuteo?
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene) - Buteo?
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
      • "Aquila" danana (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) - formerly also Geranoaetus or Buteo
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Haliaeetus (Early Oligocene - Recent)
      • Buteo (middle Oligocene - Recent)
      • Aquila (Middle? Miocene - Recent)
      • Buteogallus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - might include Harpyhaliaetus
      • "Hieraaetus" (Middle Miocene - Recent) - doubtfully distinct from Aquila
      • Milvus (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Gyps (Middle Pleistocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
  • Falconidae - Falcons
    • Parvulivenator (Early Eocene)
    • Stintonornis (Early Eocene)
    • Badiostes (Early Miocene)
    • Pediohierax (Middle Miocene) - formerly Falco ramenta
    • Placement unresolved
      • Falconidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • "Sushkinia" pliocaena (Early Pliocene) - belongs into Falco?
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Falco (Late Miocene? - Recent)
      • Milvago (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Caracara (Late Pleistocene - Recent) - formerly Polyborus

CaprimulgiformesEdit

Nightjars, potoos and allies. Apparently paraphyletic.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Paraprefica (Early Eocene?) - Steatornithidae or Nyctibiidae
  • Steatornithidae - Oilbirds
    • Prefica
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Steatornis sp.
  • Podargidae - Frogmouths
    • Masillapodargus
    • Quercypodargus
  • Nyctibiidae - Potoos
    • Euronyctibius
  • Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
    • Ventivorus

AegotheliformesEdit

Owlet-nightjars

  • Aegothelidae
    • Quipollornis (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

ApodiformesEdit

Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Primapus (Early Eocene) - aegialornithid or apodid
    • Parargornis (middle Eocene) - jungornithid, trochilid, basal as Argornis?
    • Argornis (Late Eocene) - basal to Jungornithidae and Trochilidae
    • Cypselavus (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene) - aegialornithid or hemiprocnid
  • Aegialornithidae
  • Jungornithidae
    • Jungornis (Early Oligocene of N Caucasus, Russia)
    • Palescyvus
    • Laputavis
  • Trochilidae - Hummingbirds
    • Eurotrochilus (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Brazil)
  • Apodidae - Swifts
    • Scaniacypselus (Early - middle Eocene)
    • Procypseloides (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

ColiiformesEdit

Mousebirds and relatives

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Chascacocolius (Late Paleocene? - middle Eocene) - basal? sandcoleid?
    • Eocolius (Early Eocene) - sandcoleid or coliid
    • Selmes (middle Eocene? - Late Oligocene) - coliid?, possibly synonym of Primocolius
    • Limnatornis (Early Miocene) - coliid? (Urocolius?) Includes "Picus" consobrinus
    • "Picus" archiaci (Early Miocene) - Limnatornis? coliid? (Urocolius?)
    • Necrornis (Middle Miocene) - coliid? (Colius?)
    • †Coliiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene) - coliid? (Colius, Urocolius?)
    • Eobucco - sandcoleid?
    • Uintornis - sandcoleid?
  • Sandcoleidae
    • Sandcoleus (Paleocene)
    • Anneavis
    • Eoglaucidium
  • Coliidae - Mousebirds
    • Primocolius (Late Eocene/Oligocene)
    • Oligocolius (Early Oligocene)
    • Masillacolius (middle Eocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

StrigiformesEdit

Owls and barn owls

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Berruornis (Late Paleocene) - basal? Sophornithidae?
    • †Strigiformes gen. et ap. indet. (Late Paleocene)
    • Palaeoglaux (middle - Late Eocene) - own family Palaeoglaucidae or Strigidae?
    • Palaeobyas (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Tytonidae? Sophiornithidae?
    • Palaeotyto (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Tytonidae?
    • †Strigiformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
  • Ogygoptyngidae
    • Ogygoptynx (Middle/Late Paleocene)
  • Protostrigidae
    • Eostrix (Early - middle Eocene)
    • Minerva (middle - Late Eocene) - formerly Protostrix, includes "Aquila" ferox, "Aquila" lydekkeri, and "Bubo" leptosteus
    • Oligostrix (middle Oligocene)
  • Sophiornithidae
    • Sophiornis
  • Strigidae - Typical owls
    • Mioglaux (Late Oligocene? - Early Miocene) - includes "Bubo" poirreiri
    • Intutula (Early/Middle -? Late Miocene) - includes "Strix/Ninox" brevis
    • Alasio (Middle Miocene) - includes "Strix" collongensis
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Otus" wintershofensis (Early/Middle Miocene) - may be close to extant genus Ninox
      • "Strix" edwardsi (Late Miocene)
      • "Asio" pygmaeus (Early Pliocene)
      • Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V31030 (Late Pliocene) - Strix/Bubo?
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Strix (Early Miocene - Recent)
      • Bubo (Late Miocene? - Recent)
      • Asio (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Athene (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Glaucidium (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Surnia (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Pulsatrix (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
  • Tytonidae - Barn Owls
    • Necrobyas (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Prosybris (Early Oligocene? - Early Miocene)
    • Nocturnavis
    • Selenornis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Tyto (Late Miocene - Recent)

CoraciiformesEdit

Rollers and allies.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Quasisyndactylus (middle Eocene) - alcediniform, basal?
    • Cryptornis (Late Eocene) - bucerotid? geranopterid?
    • † Coraciiformes gen. et spp. indet. PQ 1216, QU 15640 (Late Eocene) - 2 species
  • Geranopteridae
    • Geranopterus (Late Eocene - Early Miocene) - includes "Nupharanassa" bohemica
  • Eocoraciidae
    • Eocoracias (middle Eocene)
  • Primobucconidae - coraciiform?
    • Primobucco (Early - middle Eocene)
  • Todidae - Todies
    • Palaeotodus
  • Motmotidae - Motmots
    • Protornis (Oligocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Momotidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
  • Messelirrisoridae
  • Bucerotidae - Hornbills
    • Euroceros (Late Miocene of Hadzhidimovo, Bulgaria)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

TrogoniformesEdit

  • Trogonidae - Trogons
    • Septentrogon (Fur Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Ejerslev, Denmark)
    • Primotrogon (middle Eocene of Messel, Germany? - Early Oligocene of France)
    • Paratrogon (Early Miocene of France)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (NW Europe)
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (NW Europe)

PiciformesEdit

  • Placement unresolved
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. IRScNB Av 65 (Early Oligocene)
    • Rupelramphastoides (Early Oligocene) - ramphastid?
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 429 (Late Oligocene)
    • Capitonides (Early - Middle Miocene) - ramphastid? "capitonid" (Lybiidae, Megalaimidae)? own family Capitonididae?
    • †Pici gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene) - "capitonid" (Lybiidae, Megalaimidae?)
  • Miopiconidae
    • Miopico
  • Lybiidae - African barbets
    • †Lybiidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene) - extant genus Pogoniulus?
  • Picidae - Woodpeckers
    • Palaeopicus (Late Oligocene)
    • Palaeonerpes (Early Pliocene)
    • Pliopicus (Early Pliocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • cf. Colaptes DMNH 1262 (Early Pliocene of Ainsworth, USA)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record

PasseriformesEdit

  • Placement unresolved
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early Eocene) – several species, oscine?
    • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Oligocene) – several suboscine and oscine species
    • Certhiops (Early Miocene of Germany) – basal Certhioidea
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) – suboscine?
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) – several species, oscine?
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Middle Miocene) – several species, basal?
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Middle Miocene) – several species, oscine?
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Miocene) – Sylvioidea
    • "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene)
  • Eurylaimidae – broadbills
    • Placement unresolved
      • Eurylaimidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Miocene)
  • Palaeoscinidae
    • Paleoscinis (Late Miocene)
  • Furnariidae – ovenbirds
    • Pseudoseisuropsis (Late Pleistocene of Uruguyay)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Pseudoseisura cursor (Ensenada Early/Middle Pleistocene of Anchorena, Argentina)
      • Cinclodes major (Middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
  • Menuridae – lyretails
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Menura (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Meliphagidae – honeyeaters
    • Placement unresolved
      • Meliphagidae gen. et spp. indet. (Middle/Late Miocene - Pliocene of Riversleigh, Australia) – at least 7 spp., some may be from extant genera
  • Orthonychidae – logrunners
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Orthonyx (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Oriolidae – Old World orioles
    • Longimornis (Early Miocene of Riversleigh, Australia)
  • Artamidae – woodswallows, butcherbirds, currawongs and Australian Magpie
    • Placement unresolved
      • Artamidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) – cracticine
  • Corvidae – crows, ravens, jays and magpies
    • Miocorvus (Middle Miocene)
    • Miopica (Middle Miocene)
    • Miocitta (Late Miocene)
    • Protocitta (Early Pleistocene)
    • Henocitta (Middle Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
    • Placement unresolved
      • Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)
      • Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pleistocene) – probably belongs in extant genus
  • Laniidae – shrikes
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Lanius (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Regulidae – kinglets
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Megaluridae – grass-warblers and allies
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Acrocephalidae – marsh- and tree-warblers
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Muscicapidae – Old World flycatchers and chats
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Turdidae – thrushes
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • ?Turdus (Middle? Miocene - Recent)
  • Motacillidae – wagtails
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Fringillidae – finches
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Loxia (Late Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coccothraustes simeonovi (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
      • Coccothraustes balcanicus
  • Icteridae – grackles and New World orioles
    • Pandanaris (Pleistocene)
    • Pyelorhamphus (Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
  • Cardinalidae – cardinals
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Passerina sp. (Early Pliocene of Yepómera, Mexico)
  • Emberizidae – buntings and New World sparrows
    • Pampaemberiza (Middle Pleistocene of Necochea, Argentina)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Ammodramus (Late Miocene - Recent) – including Palaeostruthus
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Pipilo angelensis (Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea, USA)

Avians incertae sedisEdit

Hongshanornis

Hongshanornis longicresta, probably one of the most primitive ornithurine birds

These fossil taxa cannot be assigned to any major group with reasonable certainty. The "proto-birds" above are of some indeterminate basal position in the entire avian (and paravian) radiation, but known from such diagnostic material that their relationships at the family level are known. In contrast, the taxa here have a hypodigm that is usually just sufficient for giving them a valid scientific name, but not for phylogenetic purposes beyond classing them as pygostylians or more modern birds. Some, however, are known from such fragmentary remains that the possibility that they are non-avian "reptiles" such as dinosaurs cannot be ruled out at present.

  • Aberratiodontus (Early Cretaceous) - enantiornithine? (own family?) Same as Yanornis?
  • Dalingheornis (Early Cretaceous) - enantiornithine?
  • Gallornis (Early -? Late Cretaceous) - neornithine? (neognath?)
  • Holbotia (Early Cretaceous of Andaikhudag, Mongolia) - basal pygostylian?
  • Hongshanornis (Yixian Early Cretaceous of China) - pygostylian? ornithurine?
  • "Jibeinia" (Early Cretaceous) - euenantiornithine? A nomen dubium
  • Nanantius (Early Cretaceous) - enantiornithine?
  • Otogornis (Yijinhuoluo Early Cretaceous of Yike Zhaomeng, China) - basal pygostylian? enantiornithine (cathayornithid)?
  • Paraprotopteryx (Yixian Early Cretaceous of Fengning, China) - enantiornithine?
  • Protopteryx (Early Cretaceous of China) - enantiornithine?
  • Wyleyia (Early Cretaceous) - basal enantiornithine? neornithine (paleognath)?
  • Zhongornis (Early Cretaceous) - basal avian or juvenile confuciusornithid?
  • †Aves gen. et sp. indet. Sahat Sakhan Dinosaur Research Centre collection, unnumbered (Sao Khua Early Cretaceous of Khok Kong, Thailand) - ornithurine?
  • † Maniraptora gen. et sp. indet. IVPP V11309 (Yixian Early Cretaceous of Jianshangou, China) - basal pygostylian? therizinosaur (close to Beipiaosaurus?)?
  • †Aves? gen. et sp. indet. NMC 50852 (Early/Late Cretaceous of Kem Kem region, Morocco) - avian? dromaeosaurid (close to Rahonavis)?
  • Alamitornis (Los Alamitos Formation Late Cretaceous of Los Alamitos, Argentina) - pygostylian (related to Patagopteryx)?
  • Apatornis (Late Cretaceous) - neornithine (anseriform)?
  • "Cerebavis" (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithine? A nomen dubium
  • "Elopteryx" (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? non-avian dinosaur? A nomen dubium
  • †Euornithes gen. et sp. indet. (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan)
  • Gargantuavis (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? (enantiornithine?) basal ornithurine?
  • Hulsanpes (Late Cretaceous) - basal avian? non-avian dinosaur?
  • Iaceornis (Late Cretaceous of Gove County, USA) - neornithine or basal ornithurine
  • †Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. IGM 100/1309 (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - presbyornithid?
  • †Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. IGM 100/1310 (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - basal?
  • Horezmavis (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine (gobipterygiform?), basal ornithurine or gruiform
  • "Ichthyornis" minusculus (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine?
  • †cf. Nanantius (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine?
  • Neogaeornis (Late Cretaceous) - baptornithid or neornithine (gaviiform, procellariiform?)
  • Patagopteryx (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? (enantiornithine?)
  • Piksi (Two Medicine Late Cretaceous of Montana) - ornithothoracine (perhaps distinct lineage), basal ornithurine or neornithine?
  • Platanavis (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan)
  • Potamornis (Late Cretaceous) - hesperornithid? baptornithid? enaliornithid?
  • Vorona (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithine? basal ornithuromorph?
  • †UCMP 143274 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Niobrara County, USA) - psittaciform? non-avian?
  • Polarornis (Late Cretaceous or Eocene) - gaviiform or pygostylian, may be synonym of Neogaeornis
  • Yandangornis (Late Cretaceous) - basal avian? non-avian dinosaur?
  • Guildavis (Cretaceous of Wallace County, USA) - neornithine or basal ornithurine
  • Qinornis (Fangou Early/Middle Paleocene of Luonan County, China) - neornithine?
  • "Cathayornis" aberransis
  • "Cathayornis" caudatus
  • Gobipipus
  • "Ichthyornis" maltshevskyi
  • Chaoyangidae - pygostylian (ornithurine?), yanornithiform?
    • Chaoyangia (Jiufotang Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China)
  • Zhyraornithidae - enantiornithiform, ornithurine?

Liaoningornithiformes (extinct)Edit

  • Liaoningornithidae - pygostylian? ornithurine?

Eurolimnornithiformes (extinct)Edit

  • Eurolimnornithidae - basal ornithurine, neognath (grebe?) or non-avian?

Palaeocursornithiformes (extinct)Edit

  • Palaeocursornithidae - basal ornithurine, paleognath (ratite) or non-avian?


See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Sereno (2005)
  2. ^ Chiappe (2001, 2002)
  3. ^ See e.g. Mortimer (2004), Sereno (2005)
  4. ^ Clarke et al. (2006)
  5. ^ Fide Gauther & de Queiroz (2001)
  6. ^ Fide Chiappe (2002)


ReferencesEdit

  • Chiappe, Luis M. (2001): The rise of birds. In: Briggs, Derek E.G. & Crowther, P.R. (eds.): Palaeobiology II: A Synthesis: 102-106. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Chiappe, Luis M. (2002): Basal bird phylogeny: problems and solutions. In: Chiappe, L.M. and Witmer, L.M. (eds.): Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs: 448-472. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
  • Clarke, Julia A.; Zhou, Zhonghe & Zhang, Fucheng (2006): Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui. Journal of Anatomy 208 (3):287-308. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00534.x PDF fulltext Electronic Appendix
  • Gauthier, Jacques A. & de Queiroz, Kevin (2001): Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: Gauthier, Jacques & Gall, L.F. (eds.): New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom: 7-41. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
  • Mortimer, Michael (2004): The Theropod Database: Phylogeny of taxa. Retrieved 2008-AUG-14.
  • Olson, Storrs L. (1985): The fossil record of birds. In: Farner, D.S.; King, J.R. & Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.): Avian Biology 8: 79-238. Academic Press, New York.
  • Sereno, Paul Callistus (2005): TaxonSearch: Stem Archosauria. Version 1.0, November 7, 2005. Retrieved 2007-APR-30.

External linksEdit

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