The Karoo and Farrar provinces together comprise a major flood basalt province, most of which is found in South Africa and Antarctica, although parts extend into South America, India, Australia and New Zealand. It formed just prior to the breakup of Gondwana about 183 million years ago; this timing corresponds to the early Toarcian anoxic event and the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. The total original volume of the flow, which extends over a distance in excess of 6000 km (4000 km in Antarctica alone), was in excess of 2.5 x 106 km³.
- ^ See Figure 5, p 176 in A. Segev (2002) Flood basalts and the dispersal of Gondwana: periodic migration of plumes, EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 2, 171–191. European Geosciences Union. Accessed 2008-03-25.
- ^ Sur l'âge des trapps basaltiques (On the ages of flood basalt events); Vincent E. Courtillota & Paul R. Renneb; Comptes Rendus Geoscience; Vol: 335 Issue: 1, January, 2003; pp: 113-140