The Karoo and Farrar provinces together comprise a major flood basalt province, most of which is found in South Africa and Antarctica, although parts extend into South America, India, Australia and New Zealand.[1] It formed just prior to the breakup of Gondwana about 183 million years ago; this timing corresponds to the early Toarcian anoxic event and the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. The total original volume of the flow, which extends over a distance in excess of 6000 km (4000 km in Antarctica alone), was in excess of 2.5 x 106 km³.[2]


  1. ^ See Figure 5, p 176 in A. Segev (2002) Flood basalts and the dispersal of Gondwana: periodic migration of plumes, EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 2, 171–191. European Geosciences Union. Accessed 2008-03-25.
  2. ^ Sur l'âge des trapps basaltiques (On the ages of flood basalt events); Vincent E. Courtillota & Paul R. Renneb; Comptes Rendus Geoscience; Vol: 335 Issue: 1, January, 2003; pp: 113-140

Mantell's Iguanodon restoration

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