Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia to its east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, and by the Caucasus Mountains to the southeast.
- Main article: Prehistory
Homo georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia, is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe. Other hominid remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain. Neanderthal man (named for the Neander Valley in Germany) first migrated to Europe 150,000 years ago and disappeared from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared around 40,000 years ago.
- ^ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. ""Europe"". http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761570768/Europe.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-27.
- ^ A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, R. Ferring, G. Maisuradze, et al. (2002). "A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia". Science 297: 85–9. doi:10.1126/science.1072953. PMID 12098694.
- ^ The million year old tooth from Atapuerca, Spain, found in June 2007
- ^ National Geographic, 21.